Living in Northern Utah, I can plant peas, carrots, broccoli, cauliflower, radishes and potatoes. I'm sure there are others, but as stated above, I'm still a novice. So far I have my peas, carrots and broccoli in and I have my potatoes ready to go in the ground in the next day or so. I'm not planting all of these things in my garden, but at least I've gotten started. The last couple of years I've been late getting my veggies in and they haven't done as well as I had hoped.
If you'd like more information on planting a garden - check out the USU Extension website. You can find a lot of information on this website. Even the proper way to can and preserve all that yummy produce that you've grown.